FrouFrou 4 YouYou

Chicago Millinery History: Marshall Field and Co. and Millinery Part 2 March 18, 2016

 

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Marshall Filed and Co was cutting edge in the world of fashion. Millinery was no exception.

 

Hat selection was a fun tho perhaps time consuming process in the early years. Since there were so many choices a woman would be tempted by many, and in some situations, went home with more than one hat at a time.

 

Once the hat was selected, the transaction proceeded with cash or credit.

Cash or a check was a quick way to finalize a transaction. When the final “new” building at State and Washington was completed it made getting  your change a high tech event.”An extensive pneumatic-tube system, consisting of over 125,000 feet of tubing and 4,500 carriers, whisked customers’ money to the cashiering department where change was made and sent back to the originating sales counter.” http://web.archive.org/web/20110927065743/http://chicago.urban-history.org/ven/dss/fields.shtml

The Field’s approach to credit was very forward thinking early on in the history of the company. “It was the first store to offer revolving credit.” https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Field%27s

Who is to be credited with this credit approach is sometimes murky. Harry Gordon Selfridge was a leading man in the retail operation. “He greatly increased the store’s advertising budget, expanded its package delivery system, and established a bargain basement to broaden the store’s appeal among less wealthy Chicagoans. He also promised customers complete satisfaction, offering easy credit, the right to return merchandise for a full refund, and numerous in-store amenities such as a personal shopping service and ladies’ tearoom, one of the first of its kind in the nation.” http://web.archive.org/web/20110927065743/http://chicago.urban-history.org/ven/dss/fields.shtml

Credit cards, or charge cards as they could be called, were issued by the store. There was also another approach locally. The Chicago Credit Plate Service, Inc. These Charga cards were a cardboard form slid into the metal embossed on the back frame. The cards were placed into a machine to run over the embossed part with carbon paper between the multi-layer form to transfer the owner info on the receipts.

This credit card was one where a customer could make purchases at several downtown stores, Marshall Field and Co, Mandel Bros, The Fair, Carson, Pirie, Scott and Co, and  Charles A. Stevens. http://www.ebay.com/itm/VINTAGE-METAL-CHARGE-CARD-CHICAGO-CREDIT-PLATE-SERVICE-MARSHALL-FIELD-CO-EUC-/141887202637?hash=item210922e54d:g:H2wAAOSwKtlWpn7y

 

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Later on the credit card had a different look. For the gold Rewards card of the 1990s, housed at the Smithsonian, an explanation is provided. “This Marshall Field’s Regards credit card belonged to Ms. Joanne Klein during the 1990s. While a store-issued charge card was once a way to extend credit to reputable customers, by the 1990s they became an avenue for department stores to encourage repeat shoppers and store loyalty by providing perks through store credit cards. For instance, Marshall Field’s Regards card granted the holder a free cup of coffee at the stores’ coffee bar. Store issued cards also gave the store insight into the consumer’s purchasing patterns and shopping behavior.”http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_1450048

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One in the corporate color of green was a late issue:

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Marshall Field and Co did not entirely endorse just using credit. They had banks that looked like earlier cards to save money. (Money one might imagine the hopes you would bring back to the store and spend there.)

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Once the transaction was complete the hat went into a hat box. The most often found ones,on the market these days, are round tan/grey wood-look boxes. Some have a same paper as of the box gummed Fields name label. The gummed backing does not stay on well anymore.

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If you need one of these boxes, here is one on Etsy:

https://www.etsy.com/listing/244080310/50-off-easter-sale-vintage-marshall?ref=shop_home_active_9&ga_search_query=Hat%2Bbox

 

They have a twisted cord handle, far better than later boxes with a string handle. The green shallow lid square boxes did not even have  a handle.  The oldest box is the one shown at the top of this blog. It is 18″round from the French Room, most likely back in the day when the big hat at a big price could be found in that most elite section of the store. The 28 Shop opened in  1941.

More info on the 28 Shop can be found in another post here, as well as on another blog, by Couture Allure:http://coutureallure.blogspot.com/2012/08/marshall-fields-28-shop.html

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This square hatbox is available with a hat from Fields by an Etsy seller, from Indiana. One wonders if the original owner made a trip to State Street to the Mecca of stores, Marshall Field and Co, or had the hat shipped.

https://www.etsy.com/listing/244080310/50-off-easter-sale-vintage-marshall?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field%20hat%20box&ref=sr_gallery_3

 

Chicago Millinery History: Marshall Field and Co, and Millinery Part 1 March 10, 2016

The store of greatest reknown in Chicago is definitely Marshall Field and Co. It’s history as a shopping Mecca for Chicagoans and many millions of visitors is told in many ways. There are magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books which have been written about the man, Marshall Field, as well as the store. There is an online entry for both on Wikipedia. There are postcards through the decades. There are U-Tube films, the best of which should not be missed. Rebecca V. Larkin does more for the image of the man and the store than any other media out there.

Fashion was a top focus for the store. As Marshall Field V tells Ms. Larkin in her interview of him, “The men made the money, and the women spent it.” http://www.pdxhistory.com/html/marshall_fields.html

Those women spent plenty of it on hats. One enjoyable way to look back in time is through the newspaper advertisements placed by Marshall Field and Co in the Chicago Tribune. The ads go back to 1871. The Chicago Tribune began in 1871.

The first spring following the Chicago Fire of 1871 has advertising in March to tempt people to shop. This March 1, 1872 front page ad collection has none from Marshall Fields in all of the entire 6 page issue. (For ease of reading look at bar on bottom of page for + sign to click to enlarge enough to read.)
http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1872/03/01/page/1/article/display-ad-1-no-title
John V. Farwell, a former partner of Marshall Field has his own enterprise, and he has an ad for his April 1 reopening at Monroe and Franklin.

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Should one worry that Field’s store is not active? No, it has reopened in a barn that was renovated quickly just weeks after the fire. The news reports at that time indicated women were lined up around the block to get in. It may be that word of mouth, and reputation was good enough to have enough trade without advertising.

What the hat salespeople of Field’s might be concerned a bit about are two ads on March 3, 1872. On the front page Walsh and Hutchinson is making it known their wholesale house is operating, and will even provide hotel accommodations for the out of town buyers. Since so many structures burned with the fire, it seems lodging would have been at a prime.

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The other ad is even more concerning for millinery competition. On page 5 the ad shows the opening of the first millinery concern in the former burned area, 258 Wabash, at Jackson. Hewes and Prescott reestablished themselves, but it is not known for how long, as no other documentation of them shows up outside of newspaper ads. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1872/03/03/page/5

The Field’s and Leiter store, as it was still a partnership of Marshall Field and L. Leiter back then, were advertising on March 4 about special fabric goods, so women could get on track to make some summer gowns. Love the part of the ad at the bottom where one could find Butterick patterns on the second floor. They are still at State and 22nd St, in the barn. http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1872/03/04/page/1

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By Mar 1, 1900 the Field’s ad was about 3/4 of a page in the 12 page newspaper. The big deal was the Silver Sale. Field’s had moved back to the Sate St location in 18__. What lady who went in search of silver would not have been tempted to look at hats as well?http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1900/03/01/page/7/article/display-ad-4-no-title

 

On March 5, tho, the ad was one entire back page. Lots of temptations again for any woman of means to create some dresses, and trim their own hats. Veilings, previously to $.85, were available for $.25/yd. The ribbon choices were extensive. Tho feathers were not mentioned, they certainly would have been in stock, too.http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1900/03/05/page/12/article/display-ad-5-no-title

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A decade later ads were still used, but even better is a drawing of what is being espoused as the latest, a green sailor hat:http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1910/03/01/page/10/article/health-and-beauty

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By 1920 the ads make note in a full page ad that Easter is approaching, and Fields has hats in five departments; French Salon, American Room, Sport Room, English Room, and Hat Shapes and Trimmings.

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Finding hats sold at Fields in the vintage market is not too difficult in the Chicago area. Here are a dozen hats from several vintage sellers showing hats:

Frocks and Frills in Wheaton,IL also is online at Etsy:

Cream hat by Adolpho Realities

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Pink beaded hat by Amy

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Lilac floral hat by Marshall Field and Co.

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Purple Satin beret by Marshall Field and Co.

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Black hat by Leslie James

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Bleached mink hat by Marshall Field and Co.

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Feather hat by Marshall Field and Co

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Straw hat by Mr. John

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Sweet Ginger Vintage in Mayfield, WI, and also online on Etsy:

Straw trilby hat by Marshal Field and Co

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FrouFrou4YouYou on Etsy:

Blue floral hat by Marshall Field & Co.

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Red satin hat by Lemington

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Black feather headband by Marshall Field and Co

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Frocks and Frills hats:https://www.etsy.com/listing/241370793/on-sale-60s-adolfo-realites-straw-beret?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_25

https://www.etsy.com/listing/169741860/on-sale-1950s-pink-sequins-hat-amy-for?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_22

https://www.etsy.com/listing/267792272/on-sale-1960s-lilac-floral-hat-marshall?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_7

https://www.etsy.com/listing/178510773/on-sale-1950s-purple-satin-beret?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_42

https://www.etsy.com/listing/161224109/on-sale-1960s-black-straw-hat-leslie?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_38

https://www.etsy.com/listing/215662828/on-sale-50s-60s-bleached-mink-hat-white?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_32

https://www.etsy.com/listing/178457423/on-sale-fabulous-50s-pheasant-feather?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_29

https://www.etsy.com/listing/238791047/on-sale-1950s-mr-john-straw-hat-taupe?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_21

Sweet Ginger Vintage:
Straw trilby hat: https://www.etsy.com/listing/258037025/on-sale-fab-ladies-straw-trilby-by?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_35

FrouFrou4YouYou hats:https://www.etsy.com/listing/203180249/blue-floral-hat-with-green-leaves-and?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_38

https://www.etsy.com/listing/190984065/vintage-red-satin-with-rose-cocktail-hat?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_27

https://www.etsy.com/listing/258843480/black-feather-headband-with-shimmering?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=marshall%20field&ref=sr_gallery_3

 

Chicago Millinery History:Political Conventions 1900-1996 March 3, 2016

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The 1904 Republican-1916 Republican Convention.

In 1904, the Republicans gathered in the second Coliseum on South Wabash, to unanimously nominate President Theodore Roosevelt, who had assumed office after McKinley’s assassination. In 1908, Republicans returned to the Coliseum to nominate Roosevelt’s handpicked successor, William Howard Taft. Roosevelt challenged Taft in 1912, winning almost all the primaries, but was rebuffed by Republican leaders. Fearing violence from Roosevelt supporters, hundreds of Chicago police were on hand, and barbed wire was strung beneath the bunting of the podium. Roosevelt refused to drop out, and two months later the Progressive Party nominated him in the same building. New Jersey governor Woodrow Wilson won in November. In 1916, the Republicans returned to the Coliseum, again rejected Roosevelt, and nominated Supreme Court justice Charles Evans Hughes on the third ballot.

The 1920 Republican Convention

In 1920, the Republicans met again at the Coliseum. The convention was mired in a stalemate until a “senatorial cabal,” meeting in “smoke-filled” rooms 408–10 of the Blackstone Hotel, selected Senator Warren G. Harding. The delegates ratified him on the tenth ballot.

The role of Mrs. Florence Harding was perhaps more aggressive than most, if not all, previous First Lady hopefuls. The campaign headquarters at their OH home allowed for the press to have daily updates. She had been certain to have another structure built on the property to house the press. For years she had run the family newspaper, and knew how to use the press to their advantage. It is rather likely she had worked over a few of those fellow senorators of her husband’s peer group herself.

 

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This gown, in the Smithsonian Museum, was not for the inauguration. One wonders if she had it made even before the election, but perhaps not as early as the nominating convention.

The 1932 Democratic Convention 

Chicago hosted another double convention in 1932. First, Republicans glumly gathered in the new Chicago Stadium during the depths of Great Depression to renominate President Herbert C. Hoover. Two weeks later, Democrats gathered in the same hall and selected Franklin D. Roosevelt over Al Smith on the fourth ballot. Roosevelt flew to Chicago to deliver the first-ever convention acceptance speech.

In 1940 and 1944, Roosevelt was renominated for his third and fourth terms in the Stadium. Republicans challenged him in 1944 with New York governor Thomas E. Dewey, also nominated in the Stadium.

The 1940 _____ Convention

What party? The one with Gracie Allen.

Gracie Allen, the better half of the Burns and Allen comedy duo made an announcement she would run on the Surprise Party ticket. This started as a bit for their radio show, but blossomed. She went from ” I’m tired of knitting this sweater. I think I’ll run for President.” To a special train car fitted for the whistle stop campaign, from Hollywood with 30+ stops, all the way to a national convention for 4 days in Omaha, NB. No, this was not in Chicago, but it certainly had to be a great source for conversation at the conventions held in

The election outcome? Perhaps 40,000 actual votes. Her picture showed her wearing a top hat, as well as fashion of the day hats.

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The 1940 Democratic Convention

File written by Adobe Photoshop¨ 4.0

1940 delegates at the Democratic convention, with one wide brim hat see near the top. Poor girl in bottom right might have been texting, if she had a cell phone. http://www.chicagohs.org/history/politics/photos12.html

The 1944 Democratic Convention

Roosevelt was nominated for a fourth term as President. The big question was who would be nominated for Vice-President. What was of concern was the chance that Henry Wallace could be selected. There was opposition by some , which led to the nomination of Harry Truman.

The 1952 Republican Convention

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http://www.ebay.com/itm/1952-CHICAGO-ILLINOIS-REPUBLICAN-NATIONAL-CONVENTION-RIBBON-/370719134667?hash=item56509513cb:m:mFLN7mxO1L6ej1VhnGk2BDQ

 

Republican television coverage allowed viewers to see a fist fight of delegates who supported Taft, vs Eisenhower, who won on the first ballot. This convention was held at the International Ampitheater, where wrestling and boxing matches were held, so perhaps the delegates were unclear that a fist fight was not at the right time, if even at the right place.

Political conventions had a new thing happening on television, with Eisenhower benefiting from the use of 20 second commercials. Democratic convention coverage was tamer, but  Aldai Stevenson had a bad outcome with his 30 minute television broadcast, as it interrupted the I Love Lucy program, and viewers wrote to express their dismay.

 

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Television advertisements in the Chicago Tribune in June 1952 were there to entice the impulse buyer.

http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1952/06/15/page/33/article/display-ad-32-no-title

In 1956 the Democrats met in Chicago to nominate Adlai Stvenson, just as they had in 1952, not that it would turn out any better this time.

News coverage on television took on a more prominent role, as there were more TV’s in households than in 1952. “Perhaps no phenomenon shaped American life in the 1950s more than TELEVISION. At the end of World War II, the television was a toy for only a few thousand wealthy Americans. Just 10 years later, nearly two-thirds of American households had a television.”  http://www.ushistory.org/us/53c.asp

Chet Huntley and David Brinkly did the NBC convention coverage, and were so well received they went on to remain paired as news commentators for the network until they retired in 1970.

“The highlight of the 1956 Democratic Convention came when Stevenson, in an effort to create excitement for the ticket, made the surprise announcement that the convention’s delegates would choose his running mate. This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination; a good deal of the excitement of the vice-presidential race came from the fact that the candidates had only one hectic day to campaign among the delegates before the voting began. The two leading contenders were Senator Kefauver, who retained the support of his primary delegates, and John F. Kennedy, who, as a first term Senator of Massachusetts, was relatively unknown at that point. Kennedy surprised the experts by surging into the lead on the second ballot; at one point he was only 15 votes shy of winning. However, a number of states then left their “favorite son” candidates and switched to Kefauver, giving him the victory. Kennedy then gave a gracious concession speech. The narrow defeat raised his profile and helped Kennedy’s long-term presidential chances, yet by losing to Kefauver he avoided any blame for Stevenson’s expected loss to Eisenhower in November. As of 2015, this was the last time any nomination went past the first ballot.”

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1956_Democratic_National_Convention

 

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Souvenirs are popular at any large special event. Folks like to have something concrete to relive those wonderful moments of their lives. No idea who sold the cigar that was inside this wrapper, but the paper band has survived.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/1952-Souvenir-Cigar-Band-from-the-National-Political-Convention-Chicago-/231373333324?hash=item35deece34c:g:vTcAAOSwQItT5QyL

 

In the 1950s a lady would not likely have desired a cigar as a souvenir. She would have opted for a handkerchief. Hankies, as they are oft called, were small squares, usually of cotton or linen. The linen were popular for lace or  crochet work around the edges, and the cotton for printed images. Flowers were the most popular, and as seen below, for a political statement.

 

donkey hankyrepub hanky

 

Although they would only have likely been priced about $2 when released in the 1950s, the GOP one is now listed for $200. Perhaps it comes without the tears the GOP members felt after 1960. https://www.etsy.com/listing/231300214/intage-unique-rare-political-collectible?ga_order=most_relevant&ga_search_type=all&ga_view_type=gallery&ga_search_query=republican%20handkerchief&ref=sr_gallery_4

“Handkerchiefs were even employed for advertising in political campaigns.  One historian claims Martha Washington created a handkerchief to help promote the election of her husband.

Apparently she had “George Washington for President” hankies printed for distribution at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.  To this day, handkerchiefs are printed depicting both Republican and Democratic parties, as well as coronation handkerchiefs for royalty.”

http://handkerchiefheroes.com/home/

In case you are even more curious about patriotic hankies, there is a delightful blog. http://handkerchiefheroes.com/get-out-the-vote/

 

And what were women wearing that 1956 summer to the big city? They had been entranced by a new Broadway play, My Fair Lady. The play opened in March and ran to 1962, a record at the time. The movie from 1964 had the same impact.

For 1956, ” The most important item on every woman’s spring shopping list was a hat; not the demure Easter bonnet of previous springs, but a big, important hat—it had to be a head high or two heads wide, or it did not count. The simplicity of the slim Empire body line led all the interest up to the head, and the milliners made the most of the opportunity. Exotic, heretofore incompatible colors (pink and orange, turquoise and green) were intertwined in high silk turbans or chechias; gardens of improbable flowers grew on wide-brimmed straws; and romantic Leghorns were wound with chiffon in melting shades and set with a single pink rose. All this romance was immensely becoming—the faces beneath the hats bloomed as prettily as the flowers on the hats, and, for the first time in years, women who had never worn a hat willingly flocked to the milliners. Since these hats were alive with detail and color, the clothes beneath them were subdued. Black, gray, and pale beige were the spring col-ors, pushing navy almost completely out of the picture. Summer clothes stole many colors from the liveliest spring hats and were mainly Empire in feeling; a gentler, more civilized summer dress appeared, ladylike and, at the same time, seductive.”

http://www.retro-fashion-history.com/html/1956_fashion_and_vintage_clothing.html

The 1960 Republican Convention

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Booklets of the convention were important to keep track of keys aspects.

1960 Republican convention newsreel clip shows a rousing parade, including a few grand hats.

https://archive.org/details/1960-07-25_republican_convention_highlights

“Republicans made their final appearance in Chicago in 1960, nominating Vice President Richard M. Nixon. After Chicago mayor Richard J. Daley’s legendary role in swinging that year’s close national election to John F. Kennedy, Republicans have declined to return to the city of their first presidential triumph.” R. Craig Sautter

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This 1960’s dress could well have been worn for events to support the Republican Party. It was found in a Cincinnati, OH estate sale. https://www.etsy.com/listing/269202129/vintage-1960s-vested-gentress-gentry

 

The 1968 Democratic Convention

“The Democratic convention of 1968 was held at the Amphitheatre in the midst of the increasingly unpopular Vietnam War. When the party endorsed a prowar platform, violence between thousands of antiwar protestors and Chicago police broke out on Michigan Avenue in front of the Conrad Hilton Hotel. The events reached a national television and international audience and caused turmoil on the convention floor. The conflicts inside and out of the convention were contributing factors to Hubert Humphrey’s narrow defeat in November to Richard M. Nixon.”

“Twenty-eight years passed before another presidential convention came to Chicago. Democrats renominated President William J. Clinton at the United Center in 1996. While nominating and seconding speeches were but a sentence long at Chicago’s first presidential nominating convention, they lasted all night 136 years later.”

R. Craig Sautter

 

The 1996 Democratic  Convention

The 1968 Democratic convention and riots in Chicago were certainly more than a blemish on the city’s desirability for further conventions. It was not until 28 years later that the Democrats returned in 1996.

The 1996 Chicago convention for reelection of President Bill Clinton went well. It must have been a relief in some respects that there was only one other other candidate for the actual election. One convention in 1992 did not happen, because Ross Perot was an independent. He ran against incumbent George Bush and Bill Clinton. While the Clinton nomination came in NY, at the time of the convention it was a period after Perot had withdrawn, and had not yet re-entered the race. It was a very perplexing election.

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What about hats?

Researching the leading two milliners of my era in Chicago, Benjamin
GreenField of BesBen, and Raymond Hudd led me to constantly search online for paper ephemera as well as Chicago made hats. A couple items of convention headwear have come my way. Curious to see some? Email and perhaps we can work out a traveling exhibit, or a presentation.

 

Wondering about the medal at the top of the page? Looks old? How about this one?

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The one at the top of the page was from the 1996 Democratic convention created by the Sheraton Hotel Bar. The bottom medal was for an alternate at a long ago convention.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/1996-Democratic-National-Convention-Medal-with-Sheraton-Hotel-Bar-Chicago-IL-/311554309436?hash=item488a157d3c:g:3pYAAOSwAL9Uf0nS

 

Want to know more? Presenting programs on Chicago’s millinery history is a fun experience for Mary Robak, the author of this blog. In 2016 a new topic has been added, Political Conventions and Hats. If you would like more information about such a presentation, please add a comment and let the fun begin.

 

Chicago Millinery History: Conventions in Chicago; 1800s February 26, 2016

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Political conventions have been held in Chicago since 1860. The fourteen Republican and eleven Democratic conventions held here beats the closest city of Baltimore with a distant total of ten conventions.

What people wore to conventions has changed over the century plus of events. We shall give lip service to men, then jump into women’s fashions, particularly hats.

The male attendees have changed from waistcoats, and powdered wig of the 1700’s to the current business casual or just casual wear. If you are a candidate hopeful or scheduled speaker, then wearing the traditional tailored suit and tie is now the norm. For headwear the synthetic foam boater hat still exists to a degree, but the baseball cap has gained a foothold. Small metal pins and doodads or paper signs are sometimes added to these hats.

What women wore is a shorter history. Few women attend conventions for the majority of the years from our country’s beginning. In 1876 Miss Phobe Couzins addressed the group. As a lawyer and supporter of suffrage, she was allowed 10 minutes to speak to that hotbed topic.

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https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebe_Couzins
https://books.google.com/books?id=h4A0AAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

 

Women delegates were not part of conventions until? Some digging may still reveal that tidbit of information. Even the wives of candidates were not always present. With the exception of Jackie Kennedy, who was pregnant and due in Dec, since then hopeful presidents and vice presidents have had their wives present.

NBC was first to broadcast a convention, the Republican convention in 1940. Before that time movie shorts, the newsreels sufficed for some. Chauncey Depew, Senator Perkins, and Governor Whitman of New York are shown at GOP Convention, 1916, Chicago, Il, which ran 2 min. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/newsreels.html

Primarily word of conventions came from newspapers. Although Chicago has a rich history of newspapers, much was lost in the fire of 1871, the year the Chicago Tribune started publication.

 

WIGWAM, 1860
Chicago has been the nation’s most popular political convention city, in part because of its geographic centrality. Between 1860 and 1996, Chicago hosted Republican and Democrat presidential nominating conventions, plus one notable Progressive Party assembly. Chicago’s closest competitors for the most presidential conventions are Baltimore with 10, followed by Philadelphia’s 9.

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Wigwam # 1 http://www.ebay.com/itm/Republican-Convention-Headquarters-Chicago-1860-Hand-Colored-/350824132618?hash=item51aebf700a:m:mBvyU0PZdARRUXHKoBiPW0w

Chicago’s first presidential nominating convention, the Republican National Convention of 1860, was held in the “Wigwam,” a temporary two-story wooden structure. Last-minute backroom deals, plus a successful scheme to pack the galleries with holders of counterfeit tickets, brought unexpected victory to Abraham Lincoln. If there were women present, they would have been in the gallery. They would have been wearing bonnets, as a proper woman would not be outside her home without one.

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Democrats convened for the first time in Chicago in 1864, when they nominated General George B. McClellan and passed an antiwar platform. Republicans returned to Chicago in 1868 to unanimously nominate, at the Crosby Opera House, the victorious General Ulysses S. Grant.

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1864 Peterson’s magazine

 

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In 1880, Republicans convened in the Interstate Industrial Exposition Building on Michigan Avenue to nominate former speaker of the House of Representatives James A. Garfield, on the thirty-sixth ballot. Four years later, Chicago hosted its first double convention in the Interstate Industrial Exposition Building. Republicans nominated James G. Blaine, of Maine, secretary of state for the assassinated Garfield, on the fourth ballot. Democrats nominated New York governor Grover Cleveland, who became president.

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This Harper’s Weekly from June 1880 shows in detail the intensity of the crowd. Drawings by Frank H. Taylor. A big thank you to Mr. Taylor for including those women in their bonnets in the left bottom corner. http://www.ebay.com/itm/CHICAGO-NATIONAL-REPUBLICAN-CONVENTION-1880-DELEGATES-/400126551703?hash=item5d2966a697:m:mKKxawqKrZsOko9kzdduJrA

 

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The Leslie’s Illustrated magazine June, 1880 drawings by W. Parker Bodfish tell the story almost as well as a photograph.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/NATIONAL-REPUBLICAN-CONVENTION-CHICAGO-ILLINOIS-HELD-IN-EXPOSITION-BUILDING-/361257958687?hash=item541ca6fd1f:g:kMMAAOSwqu9VGxwx

 

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Another drawing by Mr. Bodfish in the Leslie’s Illustrated of June 1884 shows great joy at the nomination. If one looked carefully, in the upper left corner, there is one woman in this picture. She  is holding both a flag and her parasol. She might have been rather dangerous in a crowd.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/CHICAGO-NATIONAL-REPUBLICAN-CONVENTION-CHEERING-FOR-SENATOR-BLAINE-AT-MIDNIGHT-/361257968046?hash=item541ca721ae:g:~UMAAOSwBahVGx7Q

In 1884, Republicans met, but their nomination from Maine, Speaker of the House James G. Blaine was an unsuccessful candidate against Cleveland. Back room bargaining had been taking place at the highly regarded Grand Pacific Hotel, where just the year before, Standard Time had been adopted. Even if everyone was not on the same page politically, at least everyone knew what time it was.

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Harper’sWeekly, June 1884 convention outside at night.

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Harper’s Weekly June 1884 shows  Michigan Ave, outside the convention. Drawn by Schell and Graham, it indicates a parade was of great interest.  The women have the bustle in the back,  dresses with highly corseted waistlines. Parasols are also seen used by girls and women. Keeping the sun off the face helped keep the porcelain complexion, which was highly desirable, long before concerns for sun damage to the skin.

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Another Harper’s Weekly drawing of the Palmer House Hotel lobby.one can still stand in that same space today, and enjoy the lobby for which it has become well known.

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Harper’s Weekly:  Journal of Civilization, June 7, 1884 paid tremendous attention to the convention, with it featured on the cover.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Pacific_Hotel_(Chicago)

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/1884_Republican_National_Convention

http://www.ebay.com/itm/REPUBLICAN-NATIONAL-CONVENTION-CHICAGO-SERENADE-POLITICS-EXPOSITION-BUILDING-/400732046568?hash=item5d4d7dc4e8:g:9BcAAOSwBvNTqfvz

http://www.ebay.com/itm/REPUBLICAN-NATIONAL-CONVENTION-AT-CHICAGO-MICHIGAN-AVENUE-HORSES-ARCHITECTURE-/400733040344?hash=item5d4d8ceed8:g:myMAAOSwo8hTrFRo

http://www.ebay.com/itm/DEMOCRATIC-CONVENTION-AT-CHICAGO-PALMER-HOUSE-BELLBOY-HOTEL-PORTER-LUGGAGE-BAND-/400765348910?hash=item5d4f79ec2e:g:E74AAOSwq7JUAN7V

http://www.ebay.com/itm/Republican-Convention-Chicago-Delegate-1884-antique-wood-engraved-print-/121906759302?hash=item1c62358686:g:f3wAAOSw~OVW0L-9

In 1888, Republicans met in the still-unfinished Civic Auditorium to nominate Senator Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, on the eighth ballot. He lost the popular vote in the general election but beat President Cleveland in the Electoral College.

In 1892, Democrats met in a temporary “Wigwam” in Lake Park to nominate Cleveland for a third time. He regained the presidency. (See bottom of page for photo of unused ticket.)

A fine reference exists by R. Craig  Sautter, and Edward M. Burke. Inside the Wigwam: Chicago Presidential Conventions, 1860–1996.

   http://presidentialconventions.com/about.html

The 1896 Democratic convention, held in Chicago’s first Coliseum on 63rd Street, was the most unpredictable of the nineteenth century, next to Lincoln’s. William Jennings Bryan, just 36 years old, captured the hearts of delegates with his spellbinding “Cross of Gold” speech and won the nomination on the fifth ballot. He lost a dramatic election to business-oriented William McKinley

Buildings of the conventions:
Wigwam #1 at Lake and 1860, destroyed between 1860-1871.

Wigwam # 2

Interstate Exposition Building 1884. See blog of February 16, 2016 for more details.https://froufrou4youyou.wordpress.com/2016/02/16/chicago-millinery-history-the-inter-state-exposition-of-1873/

Coliseum:
History: the first Coliseum
The first Coliseum hosted horse shows, boxing matches, and circus acts beginning in 1866. Typical of most nineteenth century cities, Chicago had a flourishing bachelor subculture, which made events at the Coliseum often rowdy affairs. The arena’s history is hazy as there is no knowledge as to when it was opened and when it closed down.[1]

The second Coliseum

The second Coliseum, situated in Woodlawn on the south side, had a difficult history. Initial construction began early in 1895 on a 14-acre (57,000 m2) site of the World’s Columbian Exposition, but in August of that year the incomplete structure collapsed, and builders had to start over. Construction of the 300-by-700 foot building entailed the use of 2.5 million pounds of steel, 3.2 million feet of lumber, and 3 million bricks, and was finally completed in June 1896. The building was impressive in size for its day, twice as large as Madison Square Garden; its interior was supported by 12 massive arches, 100 feet high with a span of 230 feet. There were seven acres of interior floor space.

Not only Democrats and Republicans chose Chicago for their conventions.
Other parties=15 other conventions in Chicago
Greenback 1880=1
Independence 1908=1
Progressive 1912, 1918=2
Farmer Labor 1920,1928=2
Prohibition 1900, 1928, 1940, 1964=4
Socialist 1904, 1908, 1956=3
Libertarian 1992=1
Green 2008=1

 

 

Ticket costs back in the day are unknown. Fortunately some have survived, and at times appear for sale online.

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Democratic ticket available in 2016 from 1892= $800 on eBay. The Republican 1884 ticket shown at the top of the page had an opening price for auction on eBay for $175 on Feb. 25, 2016.

http://www.ebay.com/itm/USA-1884-REPUBLICAN-NATIONAL-CONVENTION-TICKET-/371559239809?hash=item5682a81081:g:t4YAAOSwQYZWykql
http://www.ebay.com/itm/VINTAGE-1892-CHICAGO-NATIONAL-DEMOCRATIC-CONVENTION-Guest-Ticket-/121879215673?hash=item1c60913e39:g:bzwAAOSwJb9Wq3~Y

Democratic ticket available in 2016 for a ticket from 1932=$12 on eBay. Clearly these are not as popular, or many still exist.
http://www.ebay.com/itm/FDR-1932-Mint-Ticket-Stub-Democratic-National-Convention-Chicago-Cermak-/311540379976?hash=item488940f148:g

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Democratic_National_Conventions

Want to know more? Presenting programs on Chicago’s millinery history is a fun experience for Mary Robak, the author of this blog. In 2016 a new topic has been added, Political Conventions and Hats. If you would like more information about such a presentation, please add a comment and let the fun begin.

Coming soon, the blog on Chicago Millinery History:Conventions 1900s 

 

 

 

 

 

Chicago Millinery History: Marshall Field and Co’s Forum of International Fashion February 24, 2016

imageSpring 1946 was the first season post WorldWarII when Amrican women could look forward to fashion without the constraints of rationing and serious shortages of options. Marshall Field and Company was ready and raring to go. Some ingenious planning was bringing seventeen US and international designers to the 28 Shop of the State Street store. The Forum of International Fashion was introduced to the public with a full page advertisement in the Chicago Tribune on April 7, 1946, followed each day with an almost full page ad to announce that day’s designer.

To put things in context, after the Forum ad for each day, several other fashion ads are included. Other retailers were not about to let all the attention and discretionary spending go to Marshall Field and Co.

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The names of some of the famous designers are not very familiar 70 years later. Others have stood the test of time, such as the first designer, Elsa Schiaparelli.

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April 8 Elsa Schiaparelli

Italian designer, working in Paris, known for artistic, out of the box creations, and her legacy of the color Shocking Pink. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elsa_Schiaparelli

 

 

 

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Other ads for April 8:

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April 9 Pauline Trigere
French designer, working in New York, who worked for Hattie Carneige before going solo. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pauline_Trigère

 

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Others ads for April 9:

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4/10 Alix Greis
French designer, working in Paris, who claimed her greatest accomplishment was finding Rodier jersey. Also known as Madame Gres, tho her name was actually Germaine Emilie Krebs, and known as Alix Barton.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grès

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Other ads for April 10:

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4/11 Nettie Rosenstein
American designer, working in New York, who created the inaugural gown for First Lady Mamie Eisenhower. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nettie_Rosenstein

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Other ads for April 11:

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April 12 Peter Russell
English designer working in London, he was best known for his suits. Sadly a name rarely, if ever, recalled these days.https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Russell_(fashion_designer)

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Other ads  for April 12:

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April 13 Omar Kiam

American designer, working in NY and Hollywood, he was known for movie creations till he left in 1941.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omar_Kiam

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Other April 13  ads:

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April 14 Lucien Lelong
French fashion manufacturer, working in Paris. He worked with designer Pierre Balmain.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucien_Lelong

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Other April 14 ads:

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April 15 Norman Norell
New York designer who worked in costuming, then worked for Hattie Carniege from 1928 until 1941. After a partnership business, he went solo with much success. A vintage dress was worn by First Lady Michele Obama in 2010.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Norell

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Other April 15 ads

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April 16 Pierre Balmain
French designer, who worked in Paris, with several fragrances still worn today. He is known for having recognized the talent of Karl Lagerfeld, now head designer for Chanel, as well as Fendi. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Balmain

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Other April 16 ads:

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April 17 Jo Copeland
American designer, who was well regarded for her After Five designs.
http://marybawa.com/historyofashion/copeland.html

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Other April 17 ads:

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April 18 Anthony Blotta
American designer, known for wool suits and coats.
http://vintagefashionguild.org/label-resource/blotta-anthony/

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Other April 18 ads:

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April 19 Germaine Legroux
Nothing is found online.

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Other ads April 19:

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April 20 Angele Delanghe
Belgian designer working in London, known for soft tailoring.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angele_Delanghe

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Other April 20 ads:

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Marshall Field and Co did not take the day off from the Forum, even tho it is Sunday. Easter Sunday, no less, when many of the finest fashions were worn with pride.

4/21 Adrian, just Adrian. He was one of the most legendary American designers.

American designer, working in Hollywood, known for work in films, the red slippers for Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz, and his own couture house.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adrian_(costume_designer)

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Ads and the magazine cover from the paper April 21:

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April 22 Hardy Aimes
London designer, SIR Edwin Hardy Aimes, best known as official dressmaker to Queen ElizabethII.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardy_Amies

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One April 22 ad, and a back page spread of what was worn that Easter Sunday:

 

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April 23 Hattie Carneige
Viennese designer, working in New York, known for her head to hem concept of dressing women, as she started as a milliner. She recognized the talents of Norman Norell, Pauline Trigere, and James Galanos.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hattie_Carnegie

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Other April 23 ads:

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April 24 Balenciaga
Spanish designer, working in Paris, known for evening wear. Also noted is Balenciaga brown, introduced by Marshall Field and Co in 1938. One rarely hears of it much in this century, unlike the Shocking Pink of Schiaparelli.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balenciaga

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Other April 24 ads:

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And so we end the Forum of International Fashion from Marshall Field and Co.  Chicago certainly did have a moment in the sun for fashion in 1946.

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Chicago Millinery History: Elsa Schiaparelli February 23, 2016

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Fabulous books on Elsa Schiaparelli add to the allure of all things ELSA. Especially when the person with the largest collection of her creations has put that story into words. BillyBoy is a fashion geru of this day. His first encounter with “Schiap” creations was a hat he found in a Paris flea market when he was 14. The book comes out July, 2016.

 

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Books of the 21st century written on Elsa have totaled 8 since the 2007 reissue of the 1954 Shocking Life: the autobiography of Elsa Schiaparelli by Elsa Schiaparelli.

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My “book report” could never cover all the fine tidbits from those, so the following is just to wet you appetite for more. Besides the soon to be released book, Frocking Life: Searching for Elsa Schiaparelli, by BillyBoy, there was a charming one released in 2015, written for youth, Hot Pink. Susan Goldman Rubin brings out the best of the story, without the hot tidbits of a sometimes off color life. When the term Shocking Pink was coined to describe her signature color, there was also plenty shocking about her life as well.

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It is also nice to read an adult biography with many fine qualities established from the life of one of the worlds most successful fashion designers. Meryle Secrest brings out plenty in her 2014 book, Elsa Schiaparelli: a biography.

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Also out in 2014 was a collection of unseen family photos, by Schiap’s granddaughter, model, Marisa Berenson. Elsa Schiaparelli’s Album adds new meaning to her love of family.

Who was this woman we revere as a fashion icon between the two world wars?

Born 1890-1973 she left Rome for a life spent back and forth from New York to Paris. In Paris she won the fashion world attention with her sweaters, then moved along the fashion continuum to sportswear to all manner of apparel, including hats and other museum worthy designs.

A fascination with Surealism led to oft references as an artist who worked in fabric. She was the leading designer who based inspiration from Jean Cocteau and Salvador Dali on the backs and heads of women. The Chicago History Museum exhibit in 2008-09, CHIC CHICAGO featured one simple beige dress with the well know jacket of a woman’s hair cascading down the sleeve and profile across the chest.

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Schiaparelli made hats to draw attention to herself, as well as others. It is said the lamb chop hat with a white frill at the bone was the first of her hats to gain attention for the absurd.

Famous women wore her hats. Marlene Deitrich is known for a photo among hats with a cigarette and legs outstretched. Mrs. Daisy Fellows, former Harper Bazaar editor, was the one who wore the shoe hat and brought Americans to their knees in awe over her Schiaparelli look. The shoe hat was originally inspired by Salvadore Dali, a Surrealist artist who collaborated on her fashion design.

 

 

Elsa did animal skin hats, with the face of a big cat looking on as she wore this on her own head. Rather distracting, if I say so myself. Mostly Elsa favored wearing turbans.

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She had one design that was the most copied. It was a knit tube with one end closed, called a MadCap. This was copied by Madcaps company founder Mr. Soloman, who retired a millionaire to Florida. Schiap came to despise the design as she came to see it everywhere. Imitations were sold finally at the five and dime and perhaps those worn on the head of each newborn was the tipping point for her dismay. She then had her staff dispose of any of their design and prohibited talking of it again. The part where imitation is the greatest form of flattery did not work for Schiaparelli.

Top Ten Tidbits on Schiaparelli
#1 Born 9/10/1890, died 11/13/1973.
Born in Italy to a mother of aristocracy ( and some Scottish background), and father a professor and scholar of old coins. Her uncle, was an astronomer who found the canals of Mars. Elsa had an older beautiful sister, but Elsa had “beauty marks” on her face referred to as the Big Dipper, by her uncle.

#2 Hated name Elsa, called herself Schiap.
Even in youth the name Elsa was not acceptable to her, and insisted everyone call her Schiap. Her parent were hoping for a boy, and had no name for a girl. At her christening they chose Elsa, the name of her nurse, not your typical choice. Her youth was anything but dull. She was sent by her family to a Swiss boarding convent school, but her wild side did not fit well with expectations. She went on a hunger strike, which resulted in her father coming to bring her back home, ending the 3 month education. Some near miss marriages occurred, one with a much older man, an Arab while she was 13 and visiting in Tunisia, which her father would not allow. An arranged marriage to a wealthy Russian would not be acceptable to Elsa no matter how hard she was persuaded by her family. She may have been enamored by a lower class fellow, who may have really been the love of her life, as she called out his name several times upon her deathbed.
Once on her own she went to attend a fancy event in Paris, but without a suitable gown she was left to create an emergency outfit. She did not know how to sew, but purchased many yards of fabric and kept it together with pins. While dancing a tango the pins were falling out at an astonishing rate to the point she had to be shielded by her escort to depart before a total unveiling.

#3 Moved to NYC in 1922 but divorced when deserted, age 31.
In 1914 she married a man of questionable repute, a “Count” de Kerlor. She had attended a lecture by him on theosophy, but she did not leave the audience when other attendees left. By morning they were engaged. He, tho, was lured away during their marriage by the charms of Isadore Duncan. Isadore died when her long scarf caught in her car’s axle in 1927 and was strangled. He sought fame in some manner as a psychic detective, and writer. Fortune did not follow. He ended up murdered in Mexico at the age of 39.

#4 One daughter, Gogo. Born Maria Luisa, but then her father deserted mother and child, who had Polio. Some felt Schiap was not close to her daughter, but some thought her ingenious with what she did to support her. The blow that led to speculation was when Gogo married in NY while her mother was in Paris, unaware of the marriage.

#5 Initial success was a knit sweater done in 1927, in Paris. She had left NYC in 1922 and found rejection in Paris, closing in 1926. The sweater was of a knit she had seen made by Armenians. She commissioned them to create for her, which became wildly successful.

#6 Long standing disdain for Coco Chanel.
Chanel was established when Schiap came back to Paris. Very different styles. After WWII there was a downward spiral for Schiap, while Chanel reopened in 1954 with ongoing success, heavily based upon American appreciation.

#7 Signature color legacy Shocking Pink.
It embodied her overall philosophy of shocking people with her actions. Her erotic poetry as a teenager is said to have essentially brought her much criticism from family. Accounts vary if this was when she was 14 or 21. Her fashion designs could be just as provocative, as in the Lobster dress for the trousseau of Wallis Simpson, soon to be Mrs. Windsor.
There was a lamb chop hat worn by Gala Dali, Mrs. Salvatore Dali, with a suit of drawers for pockets.
Daisy Fellows, of Harpers Bazaar, wore the shoe hat, based upon the inspiration of Salvatore Dali.

#8 Autobiography “Shocking Life.”
This 1954 book did not receive critical acclaim, mostly based on the manner in which it was written. Some felt if she would have allowed for a collaboration with a writer, things would have been better.
The 2014 biography, Elsa Schiaparelli by M. Secrest also focused on the speculation that Schiap was a WWII German collaborator. Records are reviewed which were kept monthly by the FBI on her for two and a half years.
In 2013 there was an exhibit of designs by Prada and Schiaparelli in NY.That book is a wonderful review of her work; ” Schiaparelli and Prada: Impossible Conversations.”

#9 Business bankrupt and closed 1954.
Returned from the US after the war to find her business intact, and reopened. The upswing of the Dior New Look in 1947 was the fashion world favorite, leaving the Hard Chic Schiap designs out cold. Closed in 1954, but licensing was an area in which she excelled. Perfume, lingerie, eyewear, and hats seem to be the likely best fit. Endorsements of other companies became an important aspect as well.

#10 Two granddaughters. Berry Berenson Perkins, (Mrs. Tony Perkins, wife of the actor who died in 1996 of AIDS), had two sons, Oz Perkins and Elvis Perkins. Berry had been a photographer who died in 9/11 when American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the Twin Towers. The other granddaughter is Marisa Berenson, actress and model, supportive of the revived Schiaparelli label. Marisa lived with Schiap and had a closeness that may have been greater than she had with her own daughter, Gogo. Marisa faced criticism in the 1970s at her short mini skirt wardrobe from Schiap, even tho Schiap was most known for her controversial designs. Marisa was with her till the end. Her legacy? Beyond the designs, there are others who worked for her early in their careers, such as Hubert Givency, and Pierre Cardin. In 2006 Diego Della Villa bought the company name, and in August 2013 brought on Marco Zanini. The first collection appeared in 2014.The revival of the company has pleased Marisa, and it seems the legacy of fashion may live on.

Hats:Lamb chop, Shoe, Hens Nest, Ink Pot, Telephone, Lobster

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Hats in Chicago?

In April 1946 Marshall Field, and Co held a month long event, Forum of International Fashion. They brought in  seventeen designers from the US and abroad. Elsa Schiaparelli was the first designer to present, on April 8, 1946. The ad for the Forum was an entire page, sure to catch the eye of every female reader.

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http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1946/04/08/page/17/

 

For an overview of the entire Forum, the Chicgao Tribune started off with a full page to  introduce the daily stars: http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1946/04/07/page/189/article/display-ad-165-no-title

(For more information on the Forum, see blog entry of Feb. 24, 2016)

It certainly would be wonderful to have seen those fashions, and the hats made for each ensemble.

Back to the present. Some of the books mentioned are in local libraries, but having those photos to savor again and again is easily accomplished. Visit your local independent bookseller and have them order it, if it is not already in stock. Chicagoans can head to Bookends and Beginning, in Evanston. They are more than willing to order, just call, then visit.http://www.bookendsandbeginnings.com

 

 

 

 

Chicago Millinery History: The Chicago Jubilee of 1931

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What was the 1931 Chicago Jubilee?
City Editor of the Chicago Tribune, Mr. Robert M. Lee, had asked the newspaper publisher to be allowed to take a vacation to Europe. The publisher was not quick to agree, but offered instead if Mr. Lee were able to create a large scale event that benefitted the city, he could consider the request.http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1931/05/16/page/2/article/the-real-story-behind-birth-of-chicago-jubilee

Three weeks later the Jubilee was held in downtown Chicago. Mr. Lee accomplished a significant amount of planning in a very short time. The event consisted of merchants and industry creating assorted focal events across one week, starting May 11, 1931. Most events were scheduled in the evening to boost business, and garner more after work attendees.

A parade of 150 floats one day, another day’s events had 1,500 singers in a caravan singing thru the streets. Fireworks display in Grant Park, and carnival in Pilsen another day were a big daw. Other events: A boxing exhibition at Soldier Field; cute baby contest; High School ROTC unit review at Stagg Field; street dancing on Ohio between St. Clair and Michigan Ave. A tournament was held at Washington Park; a dedication of a replica of Fort Dearborn. Last but not least, the chance for a few fortunate Chicagoans to be a bit richer, with a contest with prizes worth $5,000.

Stores had advertised special merchandise and in-store guests.

Although hat advertisements were scattered throughout the week, the
Saturday ads for the culmination of the week indicate retailers made a good effort to clear end of spring season stock, and bolster sales of the new mesh style hat.
Saks Fifth Avenue held a sale on the main floor of millinery for 200 hats at $5, usually priced $25. Junior hats on the third floor were just $3.50 with hats of values to $15 were available.

Milgrim Hats on South Michigan Blvd were marked down to $10 from $35. Marshall Field featured sample hats for $10 on their 5th floor.

Mandels was featuring a $5 mesh hat for summer, a new fabric it seems. Carson Pirie Scott and Co called it a “Rag of a Hat” in 10 colors and charged $5.25.

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Other stores also had bargains, like

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For the woman not looking for a big bargain, but her basic summer hat, a nice Panama straw would be a good investment. Maurice L. Rothschild at State and Jackson had Stetson Pamama straws for $15. Other Panama straws ranged from$7.50-$30.

This is was an ideal time to really advertise for gift giving for Mother’s Day:

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There were probably some shoppers who were not going to get into the city, so Marshall Field added additional full page ads for the Evanston and the Oak Park stores:

 

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A Tribune article on May 31, 1931 indicates merchants found the Jubilee a major success and stimulus for trade. It seems the city had gone through a difficult winter, which was no surprise since this was the Depression. The Tribune publisher, and City Editor Mr. Lee had done well for the city.

http://archives.chicagotribune.com/1931/05/19/page/14/article/the-lessons-of-the-jubilee

The event for Mr. Lee culminated by taking the trip to Europe, sailing May 16 on the Il de France.